Soba Canada

Soba and Health / Safety of Foods

    (1) Aging society and Soba's incredible effect
    (2) US Studies on Health and Futuristic Food "Soba"
McGovern Report, China Study and Alternative Medicine by NACAM
    (3) Safety of Foods against GMO/Environmental Hormones

 (4) Inmune Mechanism of Human Body
    (5) Nutrients of Buckwheat and their roles .....New!

(1)Aging society and Soba's incredible effectA seagull in the blue skyBaby Boomers have been retiring and we have entered into an Aging Society. And we are getting more and more health conscious in these days in order to enjoy the life. Food and exercise are two main factors to determine our health condition. All animals and plants constitute a self-completed small universe. Generally speaking if you could eat the materials as a whole in its original condition, it would be the best because you eat the whole universe and all necessary substances for growth and survival are contained there. In such meaning, for example, to eat entire small fishes are very good for our health. But as you can easily notice that we are normally eating only a part of the food materials. Meat, Fish, Fruit and Grain, we only eat them after processing them into pieces by eliminating hard-to-eat or bad looking parts. So unless you eat calculating the balance factor of each nutrition, you will be prone to be off the balanced nutrition by only chasing your favourite taste. Wheat and rice are nourishing but because of their structure of the kernel, after refining process most nourishing part (Embryo) is already gone and only nice looking and comfortable to the tongue part would be main merchandises sold in the market. Though you can see whole wheat or brown rice in the market recently, still it's not so popular yet.
In case of Bcukwheat, structure of the kernel is advantageous. ie, Embryo is burried deep inside the kernel and process of peeling off its thick epicarp doesn't affect to its nourishing part.

™™(See Ingredients Comparison Chart of Buckwheat Flour and Wheat/Rice etc.)
Buckwheat itself in comparison with other grains is superior in almost all ingredients and together with above mentioned structural advantage of its kernel, the buckwheat is deserved to be called as "the King of the Grains" because it fullfils three functional requirements described below quite well. As you may recall the classes at your good old school days, there are five essential nutrients for the survival of the human beings. ie, Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipides, Vitamins and Minerals. Proteins of buckwheat are higher for outer parts of the kernel which contain about 15% of protein. Biggest trait of buckwheat's protein could be described for its high amount of Lysine (700mg/100g) , one of 9 essential amino acids, comparing with other grains which works to prevent high blood pressure and apoplexy. And Amino Acid Score to measure the quality of protein (eggs are the best protein and rated as 100) for buckwheat is 93 while best wheat flour is 44, brown rice 65, white bread 44 and that gluten free which is a good news to Celiacs.
But these nutrients represent only one part of the important functions of the foods. Other than these nutritional functions, there are still two other functions of the foods. 2nd one is sense function which satisfies our 5 senses consequently the dish must be delicious to satisfy the appetite. This is the difference from the drugs and this is the source of our cultural creation. The last function is the adjustmental function of our living body, the organism. Recently this last function attracts a great deal of attention from various fields. To strengthen the immunity, to restrain the symptoms of aging, to prevent getting cancer or high blood pressure and to adjust our nerve or digestive systems are the examples. In the buckwheat, it contains good amount of "Rutin" which is one of Polyphenol families and this Rutin is exactly one of such functional ingredients which is especially said to strengthen capillary vessels consequently preventing cerebral apoplexy and disease with hemorrhage or blood related diseases etc.. Furthermore recent study revealed that buckwheat contains more functional ingredients on top of Rutin. Noteworthy role of newly found substances is Anti-Oxidization effect. Human being without oxigen cannot maintain its life, of course. But when breathing, 3 to 10% of the oxygen utilized at respiration will be changed its form to very unstable activated oxigen which is a material to cause various lifestyle diseases such as diabetes/cancers and promote aging etc. This Anti-Oxidization effect is to remove the activated oxigen from our body. Polyphenols such as Rutin of buckwheat and Catechin from tea and Vitamin E and C etc. are all Anti-Oxidaization substances and also are the components of buckwheat except vitamin C.

It is a common feature of all grains to have mainly starch in the endosperm at center core and are enriched with other nutritious ingredients toward the outer parts of the kernel. So method of de-hulling and milling of the kernel is very important not only for the taste but also for the nutritious aspect. That's why we do all these jobs by ourselves.

Main ingredients of Whole Ground Buckwheat are as follows.
Carbohydrates 69.6%, Moisture content 13.5%, Proteins 12.0%, Lipides 3.1% and Ash content 1.8% backed up by Minerals, Vitamins, Non saturated fatty acids and Vegetable fibres etc. Different from other grain like wheat and rice, feature of buckwheat's protein is to have Essential Amino Acids which cannot be created by our body. So this must be supplied intentionally from outside sources. Among Minerals in the order of high component, it comes Potassium, Phosphorus, Magnesium as top three followed by Calcium, Iron, Zinc, Natrium, Manganese and Copper. As to Vitamins, buckwheat is rich in B vitamins complex, they are B
1iThiamine), B2 (Rivoflavin), B3(Niacin), B5(Pantothenic Acid), B6 (Pyridoxine), B9(Folic Acid) and also Vitamin E but doesn't contain any Vitamin A and C nor bad cholesterol just same as other grains.

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(2) US Studies on Health and Futuristic Food "Soba"

     š@McGovern Report
š@China Study
@   š@Alternative Medicine by NCCAM

Obesity is said to be the world epidemic of the 21st century.

CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) says "Obesity is common, serious and costly"

Americans have known it well that obesity has been the issue.

š@McGovern Report
In January 1977 first serious official warning has been presented by The Select Committee On Nutrition and Human Needs, US Senate lead by George S. McGovern. Edward Kennedy and Walter Mondale were also one of members of this committee. The report was titled "Dietary Goals of the United States - Foreward" (taking name of the chairman it is called McGovern Report).
"We must acknowledge and recognize that the public is confused about what to eat to maximize health. If we as a Governmnet want to reduce health costs and maximize the quality of life for all Americans, we have an obligation to provide practical guides to the individual consumer as well as set national dietary goals for the country as a whole. Such an effort is long over-due. Hopefully, this study will be a first major step in that direction." said McGovern and concluded that following 5 Highs are the cause of the American killing diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension, apoplexy and so on. Ie. high Calory, high Protein, high Lipid, high Sugar and high Refining foods and dietary pattern are the cause. And proposed to return to the dietary pattern at the beginning of 20th century where Americans were much more healthy.
Percentage of obesity around 1977 were less than 15% but it gets up & up by decades and highest rate was 20% in 1991, 2000 24% and 2010 34%.
Americans didn't listen or didn't follow the proposal with the counter opinions from the related industries like meat/sugar... It's a general tendency of the world that getting "richer" makes people to eat anything "high" in carory and price etc. Dietary behaviour, what to eat, how to eat, are standing on the framework of the economy, politics and social situation at that time and is deeply tacked in the culture and philosophy of the country and very much conservative by its nature. So I have a kind of understanding why Americans didn't follow and ignored this nice and reasonable guide line. But it's pity to see such a drastic increase on the obesity statistics and have to think again about the true reason for the non compliance.

š@China Study
In 1983 2nd massive project funded by US NCI (National Cancer Institute) has be launched in cooperation with US (Cornell University), China (Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine) and UK (Oxford University) together with government's agencies and it took 7 years for the completion as the "Study on Dietary, Lifestyle and Disease Mortality Characteristics in 65 Rural Chinese Counties".
It was a comprehensive study of dietary and lifestyle factors associated with disease mortality in China. The study compared the health consequences of diets rich in animal-based foods to diets rich in plant-based foods among people who were genetically similar.
In 1983 two villages were chosen at random in each of 65 rural counties in China, and 50 families were chosen at random in each village. The dietary habits of one adult member of each family were examined, half male, half female and the results compared to the death rates in those counties from around 48 forms of cancers and other diseases during 1973-75.
The study concluded that counties with a high consumption of animal-based foods in 1983-84 were more likely to have had higher death rates from "Western" diseases as of 1973-75, while the opposite was true for counties that ate more plant foods. The study found surprising fact that plant and whole foods would be the solution. Prof. Colin Campbell at Cornell University tried to publish the study together with other study members but was refused fearing serious uproar because the conclusion was not favourable and too strict to the common public backed by the industries and governments and got immediate attacks by patronized scholars saying it did not find a clear association between animal product consumption and risk of heart disease or major cancers.
Nevertheless in Jan., 2005 it was published as "The China Study" by Colin Campbell, Jacob Gould Schurman Professor Emeritus of Nutritional Biochemistry at Cornell University, and his son Thomas M. Campbell II, a physician. It had sold over one million copies as of October 2013, making it one of America's best-selling books about nutrition.TheChina Study, a national bestseller co-authored by Dr. Campbell and his son, Thomas M. Campbell, MD, has sold more than 1 million copies since it was first published in 2005. It is the foundation upon which a nationwide plant-based diet movement is based. The China Study presents a clear and concise message of hope as it dispels a multitude of health myths and misinformation.
The science is clear. If you want to be healthy, change your diet.

The China Study examines the supposed relationship between the consumption of animal products (including dairy) and chronic illnesses such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, and cancers of the breast, prostate and bowel. The authors conclude that people who eat a whole-food, plant-based /vegan diet, avoiding all animal products, including beef, pork, poultry, fish, eggs, cheese and milk, and reducing their intake of processed foods and refined carbohydrates will escape, reduce or reverse the development of numerous diseases. They write that "eating foods that contain any cholesterol above 0 mg is unhealthy."
They also recommend sunshine exposure or dietary supplements to maintain adequate levels of vitamin D, and supplements of vitamin B12 in case of complete avoidance of animal products. They criticize low-carb diets, such as the Atkins diet, which include restrictions on the percentage of calories derived from complex carbohydrates. They are also critical of reductionist approaches to the study of nutrition, whereby certain nutrients are blamed for disease, as opposed to studying patterns of nutrition and the interactions between nutrients.

The authors argue that "most, but not all, of the confusion about nutrition is created in legal, fully disclosed ways and is disseminated by unsuspecting, well-intentioned people, whether they are researchers, politicians or journalists," and that there are powerful industries that stand to lose a lot if Americans shift to a plant-based diet. They write that those industries "do everything in their power to protect their profits and their shareholders."
The authors describe their eight principles of food and health:
Nutrition represents the combined activities of countless food substances. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

  1. Vitamin supplements are not a panacea for good health.
  2. There are virtually no nutrients in animal-based foods that are not better provided by plants.
  3. Genes do not determine disease on their own. Genes function only by being activated, or expressed, and nutrition plays a critical role in determining which genes, good and bad, are expressed.
  4. Nutrition can substantially control the adverse effects of noxious chemicals.
  5. The same nutrition that prevents disease in its early stages can also halt or reverse it in its later stages.
  6. Nutrition that is truly beneficial for one chronic disease will support health across the board.
  7. Good nutrition creates health in all areas of our existence. All parts are interconnected

Bill Clinton (former US President) became a vocal supporter of The China Study. In 2010, after years of living with heart disease, he undertook the diet, eating legumes, vegetables, fruit and a protein shake every morning, effectively living as a vegan. Within a short period he said that he had dropped 24 pounds, returning him to his college weight. Sanjay Gupta, CNN's chief medical correspondent, said in his documentary The Last Heart Attack in August 2011 that The China Study had changed the way people all over the world eat, including Gupta himself.

š@Alternative Medicine by NCCAM
Study by NCCAM (National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine)
US Department of Health and Human Services has NIH (National Institutes of Health) which is a biggest medical research institute in the world. In 1992 NIH has created NCCAM (National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine) in order to study more effective way of implementation of superior medicine of other world. The background of this movement was to stop and cut ever increasing budget for Medicare cost of the government. In 1940 Medicare cost was only US$4 Billions but in 1992 (the year when NCCAM was established) it jumped up well over US$800 Billions and 1994 it easily exceeded US$1 Trillion and still accelerating upward with the arrival of the Aging Society. And the tax-payers will not be tolerable for such a heavy burden on their shoulders. Something must be done. Everybody thought. Analysis revealed that 70% of the Medicare costs were paid for the chronic diseases such as Cancer, Diabetes and Heart and blood related diseases etc. called Life-style disease or Adult disease. These Life-style diseases could be prevented and cured just by changing their lifestyle introducing proper exercise and/or dietary precautions. Thus promotion of such healthy lifestyles would surely contribute to reduce the backword cost to be used for the medical treatments. NCCAM defines the word "Alternative Medicine" as the Medicare systems to put an emphasis on the improvement of the quality of life and prevention of diseases which current western medicine doesn't have an answer. In 1995 they have issued a huge report titled "Alternative Medicine: Expanding Medical Horizons" in which they have deeply thought current main stream of western medicine have been really effective for treatment of external wound or pain relief etc but it also has revealed its weakness for chronic diseases called life-style diseases. Diseases must be cured fundamentally not only doing symptomatic/clinical treatments killing pain etc.. Based upon such recognition, they have given priority to the following research fields.

   1)Dietary treatments for the prevention and treatment of the chronic diseases
   2)Implementation of the traditional Oriental medicine such as Acupuncture and moxibustion
   3)Mutual relationship between body and mind such as psychological treatment, meditation, imaging and music therapy etc.
   4)Chiropractic and massage therapy
   5)Herbal treatment and drugs which are not approved by current western medicine.  6)And a few more fields.

As the study went on, it revealed the defects of current American style meal diet which was big enough to be sick and definitly lacking minerals and vitamins etc. Personally I feel that to completely exclude animal basis foods from our dietary selection would be too strict and lacking the balance of the universe and could be the cause of unnecessary stress to many people. So I would like to follow the conclusion of the science with a little bit of modification at my style, ie. Eat- small basically on plant foods, Take-balance and Live with Thankness and Laughter avoiding unnecessary stress.
Recently Japanese traditional dietary style mainly relying upon grains such as rice and buckwheat, vegetable and fish are reviewed and proved to be the ideal diet and far much better than that of Western style which tend to induce lifestyle diseases by over consumption of lipid/protein from meat etc. and firmly believe that dietary style like Japanese cuisine, vegetarian and macrobiotic meal would easily reduce the risks of being in cancer and heart/blood related diseases etc..
So 21st century must be the century of the real fusion between West and East culture.
Now I would like to take a break by simply saying that eating Soba means to stay healthy and young. It fits every TPO from outdoor emergency provision to cool Edokko style of soba eating,
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(3)Safety of the Foods against GMO / Environmental Hormones
In the past in order to be healthy it was OK just to follow above mentioned nutritious precautions. But regrettably nowadays there is one more basic issue you have to bear in mind. That is "the Safety of the materials" by avoiding the risks of the exposures to newly created chemicals by man such as hormone disrupting chemicals (Environmental Hormones) and GMO (Genetically Modified Organism) etc.. It is said that there are about 70 environmental hormones listed at present including famous deadly dioxin. Recent development of the science especially in Biotechnology is surprisingly remarkable. In 1996 it appeared clone sheep and soon commercialized clone beef and in 2003 news says first human clone was born though no scientific proof was given. And attempt of DNA treatment at some hospital, GMO vegetables such as never rotten ripe Tomato (Flavor Saver) sold in USA or insect-resistent Corn which has programmed built-in insecticide in it and herbicide resistent Soybean (Round Up Ready) and very end of 2002 Application for approval of Round Up Ready Wheat was submitted quietly in Canada. Happily it was not approved because the applicant failed to convince the parties concerned with proof of safety. And there are many more GMO foods in the market. And now GE (Genetically Engineered) fishes are under way. With this GE technique, it is easy to create an animal with a new characteristics, but large mammals like cows, pigs and goats don't multiply as plentifully or as rapidly as fish. GE fishes with continuous production of the growth hormone gene grow as much as 10 to 30 times faster than normal fish. And there are already more than 35 species being developed around the world and pushing governments for approval. In China, it is reported that GE carp is already in commercial production and in Cuba GE tilapia is being sold to consumers. Most GE fishes are cultivated in ocean net pens which are highly susceptible to breakage caused by weather, human errors etc. and average 15% of farmed fish escape also sometimes there are incidences of mass fish escape. One of the reason for GMO is to prepare for possible famine by the increase of population on the earth. But on the contrary it might work adversely. Study says GE fish is more aggressive, consume more food and attract more mates but their offspring will be less fit and less likely to survive. As a result such GE fish will cause natural species to become extinct within only a few generations.
These GM products would be nice only if scientists could prove their risk-free nature to our human bodies and/or environment. But it seems that promoters of these projects are too busy to acheive their main goal of "making money" by just saying GM foods are "Substantially equal" to the natural foods they immitated. Can we believe such words? We have so many studies and experiments which show clear danger to humanity and environment.
Can promoters simply say that animal experiments could not be applied to human? We can suppose what would happen in case of human. We cannot wait till we have definite proofs by the disaster on humanity and environment. It's too late by then. We have to humbly follow the warning signs of the studies. Also it must be the responsibility of the promoters to scientifically prove the safety of their products. Traditional doctrine of Criminal Code is "Suspicious should not be punished" but in this case the doctrine must be "Suspicious should not be released".
Not only GMO issue, there are so many problems on the Safety of our Foods. Examples are post-harvest agricultural chemicals and so called "Environmental Hormones" like Dioxin which are endocrine hormone disrupters. It is said our bodies are now contaminated with more than 300 man-made chemicals which mojority of them were not in the bodies of our great-grandparents. It is definitely prudent to minimize the daily exposure to humans especially pregnant women and children because some chemicals that we cannot break down will accumulate in our body's tissues known as "Bio-Accumulation". It is not known what the long term effects might be (but we have so many signs already) and we would be unable to remove them from our bodies and environment even if found to be harmful. . Contaminated environment and foods are directly affecting to humanity as the top of the food chain. If you wouldn't take good precautions to avoid these risks, your precaution toward nutritions and excersises could result in vain. It is almost impossible to eliminate these dangerous chemicals but it is possible to reduce the risks of being exposed to them by correct selection of our foods with good knowledge. We will discuss how to reduce risks at earliest opportunity.
Little is known about the possible risks of these Environmental Hormones and GM Foods because these are quite new issuses. Most of the evidence for these Endocrine Hormone Disrupting Toxicity are from studies on animals or on cell cultures. There is little data available on human effects due to unacceptability of doing experiments on humans.
However there are many worrying signs and trends in the health of the humanity.

1) Steady increase of cancer. No.1 cause of death. About one third are death from cancers. 50 years ago, the cause of US womens's (age between 40 to 55) death by breast cancer was only 5% but a report says it increased 1% every year since then.
2) Sperm counts have reduced by about 25% in recent 20 years. Especially those born most recently having the lowest sperm counts. Recent report says that 20 year old lad counts only a half of 40 year old man's sperm. The ratio of male to female births has declined during last 20-40 years in Europe and North America by reducing proportion of male babies through environmental pollution and hormone disrupters.
3) Decrease of immunity, disorder to brain nerve system and endocrine system by hormone disrupters.
4) Increase of the new born babies with atopic dermatitis. 1997 in Japan 7% of new borns were atopic allergy since fetus through prenatal infection. And with breast feeding, incidence ratio increased another 8%.

Human organism during its 1.5 millions years history of evolution has developped the internal defence system of degrading and detoxifying phytoestrogens (estrogenic chemicals produced naturally by plants are called phytoestrogens) and other chemicals by metabolism but it is not ready yet to build up new antibody or new enzyme for the newly man-made chemicals in such a short time of 30/50 years. And only with ultra small quantity, they start working and give us various harms. Can you guess how small is it for "small quantity"? Unit being used normally is PPT (Parts Per Trillion) ! And we cannot imagine anything at all with it but it could be explained as a dew drop of 1g dripped into a huge swimming pool with size of L500m x W200m x D10m . Products contained with these bad chemicals are saturated around us and almost next to impossible to eliminate using all these products. But even if it's the mission very difficult, we have to try to do everything possible starting from not buying such suspicious products and studying the way of safe eating because nearly 100% of hormone disrupters are through foods.
Understanding above situation well, Soba Canada is trying to select only the materials to be "Safe" for our health and environment. And we can proudly say that;

----Through Soba , to get health and happiness are our objectives-----

Happilly, there is no GMO Buckwheat in the world yet and we have some non-GMO/organic growers in Canada for other grains and beans too.

(4) Inmune Mechanism of Human Body
Our body is well maintained and adjusted atomatically for the optimum condition for survival. It is not necessary to order consciously to make a breath to our lung for example. Our lung works depending upon the situation, faster or slower. It's the role of Autonomic Nerve System which consists from Sympathetic Nerve and Parasympathetic Nerve. During the daytime, Sympathetic Nerve dominates the body for a support of our various activities and coming back home in the evening the switch changes to Parasympathetic Nerve for relaxed time. Thus Autonomic Nerve toggles between Sympathetic nerve and Parasympathetic nerve in a Circadian Rythme if working normally. But in the modern world we are surrounded by so many stresses which would lead us to autonomic ataxia.

The blood consists from two types of blood cells (corpuscle). Majority is the red blood cell (Erythrocyte) which function is to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide and exists about 5 million per cubic mm. And another one is the white blood cell (Leukocyte) which is in charge of Immunity and number is only 5-6,000/cbc. mm. It's only 0.1% of the Erythrocyte. 60% of the Leukocyte is Granulocyte whcih eats and decomposes invading bacteria/virus. But the life of this Granulocyte is only for 2 days after differentiation from marrow. It blows up itself and scatter the activated oxygen which makes harmful substances and attack and destroy human body. 35% of Leukocyte is Lymphocyte which recognizes these invaders as Antigen and works up Immunity by making Antibody together with B-Cell and T-Cell. And the last 5% is Monocyte (Macrophage) which also eats bigger microbes Granulocyte cannot eat. All these corpuscles are under the command of the Autonomic Nerve System. So human immune system is made and maintained when Parasympathetic nerve is taking a lead , in another word when you are relaxed listening a favourite music or soaking in a bath, your body start enhancing your inmunity. That's why sometimes taking a day off is so important. And the vegetables are also having a great power to soothe and tranquilize our body and stimulate Parasympathetic nerve to take a lead for relaxation.
Do you know the cause of a cancer? Cancer cell is a inferior cell at the time of regeneration. If your body's inmune system is working properly, such cancer cell would be killed and disposed by Leukocyte. But by some reason such as strong stress, if your inmune system is down or low and not working properly, such cancer cell proliferate themselves in your body and cause cancer. So now you know, to keep your health means to keep autonomic nerve system especially parasympathetic nerve working in our daily stressfull world. That's so simple by words.
It is reported that the Buckwheat especially has the effect to calm down brain cells thus having a plan to make a medicine from buckwheat for brain related diseases. Activated oxygen made after completing Granulocyte's job are harmuful as discussed above but Rutin of Buckwheat acts as an scavenger to remove such substances from our body.

(Easy and Effective Way of enhancing the Inmune System
The easiest and effective way to enhance our immune ability would be to pinch the bottoms of your finger nails for 10 seconds which will surely help Parasympathetic nereve taking a lead. (But only your third finger should not be pinched because it stimulates Sympathetic nerve.) If it is especially painful, then pinch it for 20 seconds. Preferably the pinchings should be done 2 to 3 sets per day. After 2 weeks of diligent pinching, you will realize the change for the improvement.
This method is derived from "Fukuda-Abo Immune Enhancing Doctorine". Dr. M. Fukuda is a well-known general practitioner in Niigata, Japan and Dr. T. Abo is a professor of the Niigata University postgraduate school with his many books which will drop the scales from your eyes.

(5) Nutrients of Buckwheat and their roles
™™(See Ingredients Comparison Chart of Buckwheat Flour and Wheat/Rice etc.)
- Carbohydrates (Carbs)
- Proteins :
-  Lipids :

- B Vitamins complex;
B1(Thiamine), B2 (Rivoflavin), B3 (Niacin), B5 (Pantothenic Acid), B6 (Pyridoxine), B9 (Folic Acid)
- Vitamin E
- Minerals :
  Calcium, Copper, Iron, Magnesium, Manganese, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium, Zinc
- Fibre :

Carbohydrates (Carbs)
: 69.6g/100g of whole ground buckwheat
The most important source of energy for the body. Our digestive system changes carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar) and uses this sugar for energy for our cells, tissues and organs. It stores any extra sugar
in our liver and muscles for when it is needed.
Carbohydrates are called simple or complex, depending on their chemical structure. Simple carbohydrates include sugars found naturally in foods such as fruits, vegetables, milk, and milk products. They also include sugars added during food processing and refining. Complex
carbohydrates include whole grain breads and cereals, starchy vegetables and legumes. Many of the complex carbohydrates are good sources of fiber.

Protein : 12.0g/100g of whole ground buckwheat
Protein is in every living cell in the body. Our bodies need protein from the foods we eat to build and maintain bones, muscles and skin. We get proteins in our diet from meat, dairy products, nuts and certain grains and beans. It is important to get enough dietary protein. We need to eat protein every day, because our body doesn't store it the way it stores fats or carbohydrates.

Lipids :    2.9g/100g of whole ground buckwheat
Lipids are very diverse in both structures and functions. Lipid family is insoluble in water. They are however soluble in other organic solvents such as ether, acetone and other lipids. Major lipid groups include fats, phospholipids, steroids and waxes. Fats are composed of three fatty acids and glycerol. These triglycerides can be solid or liquid at room temperature. Those that are solid are classified as fats, while those that are liquid are known as oils. Fatty acids consist of a long chain of carbons with a carboxyl group at one end. Depending on their structure, fatty acids can be saturated or unsaturated. While fats have been denigrated to the point that many believe that fat should be eliminated from the diet, fat serves many useful purposes. Fats store energy, help to insulate the body and cushion and protect organs.
A phospholipid is composed of two fatty acids, a glycerol unit, a phosphate group and a polar molecule. . Phospholipids are a major component of cell membranes which enclose the cytoplasm and other contents of a cell.
Steroids have a carbon backbone that consists of four fused ring-like structures. Steroids include cholesterol, sex hormones (progesterone, estrogen and testosterone) and cortisone. Waxes are comprised of an ester of a long-chain alcohol and a fatty acid. Many plants have leaves and fruits with wax coatings to help prevent water loss. Some animals also have wax-coated fur or feathers to repel water.
Saturalated fatty Acid (SFA): 0.60mg/100g of whole ground buckwheat. the components of the common animal fats, such as butter and lard.

   Mono Unsaturalted Fatty Acid (MUFA): 1.11mg/100g of whole ground buckwheat.Unsaturated fatty acids contain one or more double bonds. MUFAs are liquid at room temperature and Oleic Acid are found in olive oil and in seed oil etc.
   Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA): 1.02mg/100g of whole ground buckwheat.
PUFA s have two or more double bonds and contain essential fatty acids ie. LA (Linoleic Acid) and ALA (Alpha-Linolenic Acid) which makes EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid). DHA & EPA activate brain cells improving or preventing senile dementia and atopies, control stress, enhance memory and kinetic ability, increase eye sight, prevent arteriosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, thrombosis and high blood pressure, anti inflammation and so on and found in blue fish like sardine, mackerel and tuna.

B Vitamins Complex :
consist from 8 B complex vitamins and buckwheat is especially rich in B vitamins which contains 6 of them. ie.   B1(Thiamine), B2 (Riboflavin), B3 (Niacin), B5 (Pantothenic acid), B6 (Pyridoxine) and B9 (Folic Acid). But following 2 Vitamin Bs are not contained in buckwheat. ie B7 (Biotin) and B12 (Cyanocobalamin) those are normally produced by intestinal bacteria more than body's necessity and excessive amount is excreted . All B vitamins help the body to convert food (carbohydrates) into fuel (glucose), which is used to produce energy. These B vitamins also help the body use fats and protein. B complex vitamins are needed for healthy skin, hair, eyes, and liver. They also help the nervous system function properly. Vitamins are substances that our body needs to grow and develop normally. All the B vitamins are water-soluble, meaning that the body does not store them and must be taken in every day.
  B1(Thiamine); 0.46mg/100g of whole ground buckwheat
This is important for blood formation and circulation. It also plays a role in the proper metabolism of carbohydrates. It helps prevent depression, strengthens cardiac function and promotes healthy nerves. It is used in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). All living organisms use thiamine, but it is synthesized only in bacteria, fungi, and plants. Animals must obtain it from their diet, and thus, for them, it is an essential nutrient. deficiency results in Korsakoff's syndrome, optic neuropathy, and a disease called beriberi that affects the peripheral nervous system (polyneuritis) and/or the cardiovascular system. Thiamine deficiency has a potentially fatal outcome if it remains untreated. In less severe cases, nonspecific signs include malaise, weight loss, irritability and confusion. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, a list of the most important medication needed in a basic health system.
Good food Sources are Yiest, Pork, Beans, Embryo buds like whole flour bread, Milk and Yellow green vegetables.

RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) for adult men is 1.1mg/day and for adult women 0.8mg/day. Additionally 0.35mg for every 1,000Kcal energy intaken is needed. Over dose will be discharged with urine.

Basically nearly from 1/3 to 1/2 of Tiamine will be lost while cooking due to its water soluble character etc. So utilization of cooking water is a wise practice to retrieve it back to our body. Ancient Japanese knew that drinking Soba-yu after eating soba was a wise practice even in the light of modern science. Also another wise ancient wisdom in Soba is to use thinly sliced green onion and minced chive as the condiment. Allicin contained in garlic, green onion, chive and leek, scallion etc combined with Thiamine help absorption of this vitamin into our body. Allicin is made when the cells are destroyed by cutting./grating and you can smell this strong odor of allicin. That's why sliced green onion is used as condiment. (scientific name of onion is "Allium fistulosum" and garlic is "Allium sativm.)
The efficacies of allicin are as such; sterilization, to help absorption of B1, to promote gastric secretion, to enhance body metabolism, to enhance immunity by activating detox enzymes and anti oxidization, anti inflammation, anti stress, anti cancer, anti aging, anti cholesterol etc......Super substance the God gave us!

Alcoholic brain disease
Nerve cells and other supporting cells (such as glial cells) of the nervous system require thiamine. Examples of neurologic disorders that are linked to alcohol abuse include Wernickefs encephalopathy (WE, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome) and Korsakofffs psychosis (alcohol amnestic disorder) as well as varying degrees of cognitive impairment
Wernickefs encephalopathy is the most frequently encountered manifestation of thiamine deficiency in Western society, though it may also occur in patients with impaired nutrition from other causes, such as gastrointestinal disease, those with HIV-AIDS, and with the injudicious administration of parenteral glucose or hyperalimentation without adequate B-vitamin supplementation. This is a striking neuro-psychiatric disorder characterized by paralysis of eye movements, abnormal stance and gait, and markedly deranged mental function

  B2 (Rivoflavin) ; also called Lactoflavine 0.11mg/100g of whole ground buckwheat
This vitamin helps in the formation of red blood cells and assists the body in processing oxygen. It plalys a key role in energy metabolism and helps in the metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids, carbohydrates and protein. It helps prevent migraines and eye diseases such as cataracts, eyestrain, redish and dry eye also keeps skin, nails, hair and tyroid gland healthy.

It is found in milk, eggs, malted barley, organ meats, yeast, and leafy vegetables, mushrooms, almonds. Riboflavin is found naturally in asparagus, popcorn, bananas, persimmons, okra, chard, cottage cheese, milk, yogurt, meat, eggs, fish, and green beans (particularly on the ends), each of which contain at least 0.1 mg of the vitamin per 3?10.5 oz (85?298 g) serving.
Other sources are cheese, leafy green vegetables, liver, kidneys, legumes, tomatoes, yeast, mushrooms, and almonds.

The current RDAs for riboflavin for adult men and women are 1.3 mg/day and 1.1 mg/day respectively. Additinal intake of 0.4mg/1,000Kcal energy intak is necessary. Recommendations for daily riboflavin intake increase with pregnancy and lactation to 1.4 mg and 1.6 mg, respectively. For infants, the RDA is 0.3-0.4 mg/day and for children it is 0.6-0.9 mg/day.
Riboflavin is not toxic when taken orally, as its low solubility keeps it from being absorbed in dangerous amounts within the digestive tract. Although toxic doses can be administered by injection, any excess at nutritionally relevant doses is excreted in the urine, imparting a bright yellow color when in large quantities.

In humans, signs and symptoms of riboflavin deficiency (ariboflavinosis) include cracked and red lips, inflammation of the lining of mouth and tongue, mouth ulcers, cracks at the corners of the mouth (angular cheilitis), and a sore throat. A deficiency may also cause dry and scaling skin, fluid in the mucous membranes, and iron-deficiency anemia. The eyes may also become bloodshot, itchy, watery and sensitive to bright light.

Riboflavin in combination with UV light has been shown to be effective in reducing the ability of harmful pathogens found in blood products to cause disease.When UV light is applied to blood products containing riboflavin, the nucleic acids in pathogens are damaged, rendering them unable to replicate and cause disease. Riboflavin and UV light treatment has been shown to be effective for inactivating pathogens in platelets and plasma, and is under development for application to whole blood. Because platelets and red blood cells do not contain a nucleus (i.e. they have no DNA to be damaged) the technique is well-suited for destroying nucleic acid containing pathogens (including viruses, bacteria, parasites, and white blood cells) in blood products.

3 (Niacin) ;
4.5mg/100g of whole ground buckwheat
  A word of Niacin (NIcotinic ACid vitamIN) was made to avoid confusion from harmful Nicotine and has 2 other forms, niacinamide (nicotinamide) and inositol hexanicotinate. Niacin helps the body in making various sex and stress-related hormones and to improve circulation. We can take Niacin from foods and is rare for anyone in the developed world to have a B3 deficiency and mainly alcoholism is the cause of the deficiency. Symptoms of mild deficiency include indigestion, fatigue, canker sores, vomiting, and depression. Severe deficiency can cause a condition known as pellagra. Niacin deficiency also causes burning in the mouth and a swollen, bright red tongue.I
It is believed to be good for for high cholesterol, diabetes, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer etc and many researches are studying but they are just an early stage of the researches yet.

Good food sources of vitamin B3 are beets, brewer's yeast, beef liver, beef kidney, bonito, mackerel, yellowtail, salmon, swordfish, tuna, sardin, cod roe, sunflower seeds, and beans, peanuts, coffee. In addition, foods that contain tryptophan, an amino acid the body converts into niacin, include poultry, red meat, eggs, and dairy products. By eating these foods, you can lower the risk of being cataracts.

RDAs are as follows;
 Adult men 14`17mgNE
 Adult women 12`13mgNE
 Additionally 4.8mgNE/1,000Kcal is to be taken with maximum intake 30mgNE
(NE is niacin equivalent. 1.4% and 1.0% of triptophan is contained in animal protein and plant protein respectively and 60mg of triptophan can be biosynthesized to 1mg niacin. NE is calculated adding such amount to the amount of foods)
In case of human, intestinal bacteria also synthesize niacin. So as far as you are eating normally, it's rare to have a defficiency.
Niacin is stable with heat, acid, alkali and light but due to its water-soluble character you have to pay attention at cooking.

B5 (Pantothenic Acid) 1.56mg/100g of whole ground buckwheat 
  Animals require pantothenic acid to synthesize coenzyme-A (CoA), as well as to synthesize and metabolize proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Its name derives from the Greek pantothen meaning "from everywhere", and small quantities of this essential nutrient is found in nearly every food, with high amounts in whole-grain cereals, legumes, eggs, meat, royal jelly, avocado, and yogurt etc. The most significant sources of pantothenic acid in nature are coldwater fish ovaries and royal jelly.
Pantothenic acid deficiency is exceptionally rare and has not been thoroughly studied. In the few cases where deficiency has been seen (victims of starvation and limited volunteer trials), nearly all symptoms can be reversed with the return of pantothenic acid. Toxicity of pantothenic acid is unlikely. In fact, no Tolerable Upper Level Intake (UL) has been established for the vitamin.
RDA for adults men and women is 5mg and for breastfeeding women is 7mg. Since pantothenic acid participates in a wide array of key biological roles, it is essential to all forms of life. As such, deficiencies in pantothenic acid may have numerous wide-ranging effects, such as stop growing, headache, disfunction of peripheral nerve and/or adrenal gland nerve etc.

B6 (Pyridoxine)   0.30mg/100g of whole ground buckwheat
It is on the list of WHO's Essential Medicines which shows the most important medication needed in a basic health system. Pyridoxine keeps nerves and skin healthy, fight infections, keep blood sugar levels normal, produce red blood cells, and some enzymes work properly. Pyridoxine is a group of related compounds (pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine) found in cereals, soy beans, peas, nuts, meat, poultry, fish, eggs, bananas, avocado, lima beans, cauliflower, green peppers, potatoes, spinach, raisins, brewer's yeast, blackstrap molasses, liver, kidney, heart. Lack of pyridoxine can cause anemia, seisures, mouth and tongue sores, skin problems and nervous disorders. Pyridoxine is being studied in the prevention of hand-foot syndrome (a disorder caused by certain anticancer drugs and marked by pain, swelling, numbness, tingling, or redness of the hands or feet) .

Vitamin B6 is usually safe at regular intakes. However, vitamin B6,when taken in high doses over a long period of time, can cause neurological disorders, such as loss of sensation in legs and imbalance.
Vitamin B6 assists in the balancing of sodium and potassium as well as promoting red blood cell production. It is linked to cardiovascular health by decreasing the formation of homocysteine. Pyridoxine may help balance hormonal changes in women and aid the immune system.  

B9 (Folic Acid)   51mcg/100g of whole ground buckwheat
 Also called Folacin, Folate, Pteroylglutamic acid
Name came from Latin "folium" for leaf when found in 1941 from spinach leaf. Every woman needs folic acid every day for the healthy new cells the body makes every day...the skin, hair, and nails and the everything and especially important to have enough Folic Acid before (at least one month before) and during pregnancy in order to prevent major birth defects of her baby's brain or spine. Women planning a baby are recommended to take 400 microgram (mcg)(=0.4mg) of folic acid every day. Estimated average intake for men/women is 200mcg and 240mcg recommended also maximum 1,000mcg. Attention should be paid for cooking and storage. Long storage may destroy folic acid by oxidization.
Good food sources are leafy green vegetables, fruits, dried beans, peas, nuts, cereals and other grain products. Big drinking (of course alcohol beverage) prevent absorption and metabolism of folic acid.
Vitamin B9 (folate converted from folic acid) is essential for numerous bodily functions. Humans cannot synthesize folate de novo; therefore, folate has to be supplied through the diet to meet their daily requirements. The human body needs folate to synthesize DNA, repair DNA, and methylate DNA as well as to act as a cofactor in certain biological reactions. It is especially important in aiding rapid cell division and growth, such as in infancy and pregnancy. Children and adults both require folate to produce healthy red blood cells and prevent anemia.

This deficiency can result in many health problems, the most notable one being neural tube defects in developing embryos. Common symptoms of folate deficiency include diarrhea, macrocytic anemia with weakness or shortness of breath, nerve damage with weakness and limb numbness (peripheral neuropathy), pregnancy complications, mental confusion, forgetfulness or other cognitive deficits, mental depression, sore or swollen tongue, peptic or mouth ulcers, headaches, heart palpitations, irritability, and behavioral disorders. Low levels of folate can also lead to homocysteine accumulation. DNA synthesis and repair are impaired, which could lead to cancer development. Folic acid has two roles in formation of cancer. Low desnsity of folic acid prevents being cancer , but high density dose, on the contrary, promotes the formation of cancer. So careful attention is needed for high dose.

Vitamin E : 0.9mg/100g of whole ground buckwheat
 Vitamin E refers to a group of ten lipid-soluble compounds that are divided into two groups; five are tocopherols and five are tocotrienols. They are identified by prefixes alpha- (ƒΏ-), beta- (ƒΐ-), gamma- (ƒΑ-), delta- (ƒΒ-), and epsilon (ƒΓ-).
Of the many different forms of vitamin E, ƒΑ-tocopherol is the most common in the North American diet. ƒΑ-Tocopherol can be found in corn oil, soybean oil, margarine, and dressings. ƒΏ-tocopherol, the most biologically active form of vitamin E, is the second-most common form of vitamin E in the diet. This variant can be found most abundantly in wheat germ oil, sunflower, and safflower oils. As a fat-soluble antioxidant, it stops the production of reactive oxygen species formed when fat undergoes oxidation.

Vitamin E has many biological functions, the antioxidant function being the most important and best known. Other functions include enzymatic activity regulators, gene expression, and neurological function(s). The most important function of vitamin E has been suggested to be in cell signaling also protects lipids and prevents the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids

ƒΏ-Tocopherol is an important lipid-soluble antioxidant. It performs its functions as antioxidant in the glutathione peroxidase pathway, and it protects cell membranes from oxidation by reacting with lipid radicals produced in the lipid peroxidation chain reaction. This would remove the free radical intermediates and prevent the oxidation reaction from continuing. Other forms of vitamin E have their own unique properties; for example, ƒΑ-tocopherol is a nucleophile that can react with electrophilic mutagens.

Tocotrienols compared with tocopherols, are sparsely studied. Less than 1% of PubMed papers on vitamin E relate to tocotrienols. The current research direction is starting to give more prominence to the tocotrienols, the lesser known but more potent antioxidants in the vitamin E family. Some studies have suggested that tocotrienols have specialized roles in protecting neurons from damage and cholesterol reduction by inhibiting the activity of HMG-CoA reductase; ƒΒ-tocotrienol blocks processing of sterol regulatory element]binding proteins (SREBPs)
Oral consumption of tocotrienols is also thought to protect against stroke-associated brain damage in vivo. Until further research, the efficacy of ƒΏ-tocopherol may be premature to say.

Vitamin E deficiency can cause: spinocerebellar ataxia, myopathies, peripheral neuropathy, ataxia, skeletal myopathy, retinopathy, impairment of the immune response, red blood cell destruction.

Although the study suggests that vitamin E supplementation may slow the progression of dementia, the dosage was very high and may be unsafe in the long term. Overdose causes Hypervitaminosis E. Vitamin E can act as an anticoagulant, increasing the risk of bleeding problems. RDA for adult men/women are 15mg/day respectively. Many agencies have set a tolerable upper intake levels (UL) at 1,000 mg (1,500 IU) per day. In combination with certain other drugs such as aspirin, hypervitaminosis E can be life-threatening.

Olive Oil, Canola Oil, Soybean Oil, Nuts such as Almonds, Peanuts, Soybeans, Fish Roes like caviar, salmon roe, cod roe, Blue fishes such as Mackerel, sardins are good sources.

Minerals :    
Calcium (Ca) ; 17mg/100g of whole ground buckwheat
   Calcium is a soft gray alkaline earth metal. As a major material used in mineralization of bone, teeth and shells, calcium is the most abundant metal by mass in many animals. Approximately 99 percent of the body's calcium is stored in the bones and teeth. Vitamin D is needed to absorb calcium. Recommended daily calcium intake for adults more than 20 years old ranges from 1000 to 1200 mg. National Institutes of Health recommends that no more than 600 mg of supplement should be taken at a time. It is therefore recommended to spread doses throughout the day.Food sources are dairy products, sea foods, leafy vegetables etc,

Copper (Cu) : 0.54mg/100g of whole ground buckwheat
  Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. The main areas where copper is found in humans are liver, muscle and bone. Copper compounds are used as bacteriostatic substances, fungicides, and wood preservatives.The human body contains copper at a level of about 1.4 to 2.1 mg per kg of body mass. RDA for copper in adults is quoted as 0.8mg/day. Copper in the body normally undergoes enterohepatic circulation (about 5 mg a day, vs. about 1 mg per day absorbed in the diet and excreted from the body), and the body is able to excrete some excess copper, if needed, via bile. copper deficiency can produce anemia-like symptoms, neutropenia, bone abnormalities, hypopigmentation, impaired growth, increased incidence of infections, osteoporosis, hyperthyroidism, and abnormalities in glucose and cholesterol metabolism. Food sources; oysters, squids, livers, nuts and sobyeans etc

Iron (Fe) ; 
2.8mg/100g of whole ground buckwheat
  An important mineral the body needs to make hemoglobin, a substance in the blood that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues throughout the body. Iron is also an important part of many other proteins and enzymes needed by the body for normal growth and development. It is found in red meat, fish, poultry, lentils, beans, and foods with iron added, such as cereal. Iron is pervasive, but particularly rich sources of dietary iron include red meat, lentils, beans, poultry, fish, leaf vegetables, watercress, tofu, chickpeas, black-eyed peas, blackstrap molasses, fortified bread, and fortified breakfast cereals. Iron in meat is more easily absorbed than iron in vegetables.RDA for iron varies considerably based on age, gender, and source of dietary iron (heme-based iron has higher bioavailability). Infants may require iron supplements if they are bottle-fed cow's milk. Pregnant women are at special risk of low iron levels and are often advised to supplement their iron intake.

Magnesium (Mg) :   190mg/100g of whole ground buckwheat 
  Because of the important interaction between phosphate and magnesium ions, magnesium ions are essential to the basic nucleic acid chemistry of life, and thus are essential to all cells of all known living organisms. Over 300 enzymes require the presence of magnesium ions for their catalytic action, including all enzymes utilizing or synthesizing ATP, or those that use other nucleotides to synthesize DNA and RN A
.Magnesium compounds are used medicinally as common laxatives, antacids (e.g., milk of magnesia), and in a number of situations where stabilization of abnormal nerve excitation and blood vessel spasm is required. Magnesium ions are sour to the taste and in low concentrations they help to impart a natural tartness to fresh mineral waters. In vegetation, magnesium is the metallic ion at the center of chlorophyll, and is, thus, a common additive to fertilizers.

Low levels of magnesium in the body have been associated with the development of a number of human illnesses such as asthma, diabetes, and osteoporosis. Taken in the proper amount, magnesium plays a role in preventing both stroke and heart attack. The symptoms of people with fibromyalgia, migraines, and premenstrual syndrome are less severe, and magnesium can shorten the length of the migraine symptom.
Magnesium competes with calcium in the human body, in this way it actually keeps calcium in check. However, this can cause a calcium deficiency if calcium levels are already low. Low and high protein intake inhibit magnesium absorption, and other factors such as phosphate, phytate and fat affect absorption. Excess dietary magnesium is excreted in feces, urine, and sweat. UK recommended daily values for magnesium is 300 mg for men and 270 mg for women.
Spices, nuts, cereals, coffee, cocoa, tea, and vegetables are rich sources of magnesium. Green leafy vegetables such as spinach are also rich in magnesium as they contain chlorophyll.

Manganese (Mn) :   1.09mg/100g of whole ground buckwheat 
  Manganese is an essential trace nutrient in all known forms of life. Manganese ions function as cofactors for a large variety of enzymes with many functions. Manganese enzymes are particularly essential in detoxification of superoxide free radicals in organisms that must deal with elemental oxygen. Manganese also functions in the oxygen-evolving complex of photosynthetic plants. The element is a required trace mineral for all known living organisms. The human body contains about 12 mg of manganese, which is stored mainly in the bones; in the tissue, it is mostly concentrated in the liver and kidneys. In the human brain, the manganese is bound to manganese metalloproteins, most notably glutamine synthetase in astrocytes.Manganese compounds are less toxic than those of other widespread metals, such as nickel and copper. However, exposure to manganese dusts and fumes should not exceed the ceiling value of 5 mg/m3 even for short periods because of its toxicity level. Manganese poisoning has been linked to impaired motor skills and cognitive disorders

Phosphorus (P) :   400mg/100g of whole ground buckwheat
   Phosphorus is essential for life in the form of phosphate (but some are extremely toxic), it is a component of DNA, RNA, ATP, and also the phospholipids that form all cell membranes. Demonstrating the link between phosphorus and life, elemental phosphorus was historically first isolated from human urine, and bone ash was an important early phosphate source.
Living cells also use phosphate to transport cellular energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Nearly every cellular process that uses energy obtains it in the form of ATP. ATP is also important for phosphorylation, a key regulatory event in cells. Phospholipids are the main structural components of all cellular membranes. Calcium phosphate salts assist in stiffening bones.
A well-fed adult in the industrialized world consumes and excretes about 1.3 grams of phosphorus per day, with consumption in the form of inorganic phosphate and phosphorus-containing biomolecules such as nucleic acids and phospholipids; Only about 0.1% of body phosphate circulates in the blood, and this amount reflects the amount of phosphate available to soft tissue cells. Low-phosphate syndromes (hypophosphatemia) include muscle and neurological dysfunction, and disruption of muscle and blood cells due to lack of ATP. Too much phosphate can lead to diarrhoea and calcification (hardening) of organs and soft tissue, and can interfere with the body's ability to use iron, calcium, magnesium, and zinc. The availability of phosphorus governs the rate of growth of many organisms. In ecosystems an excess of phosphorus can be problematic, especially in aquatic systems, resulting in eutrophication which sometimes lead to algal blooms. The main food sources for phosphorus are foods containing protein, although proteins do not contain phosphorus. For example, milk, meat, and soya typically also have phosphorus. As a rule, if one holds a meal plan providing sufficient amount of protein and calcium then the amount of phosphorus is also likely sufficient.

Potassium (K) :   410mg/100g of whole ground buckwheat
  Potassium ions are necessary for the function of all living cells. Potassium ion diffusion is a key mechanism in nerve transmission, and potassium depletion in animals, including humans, results in various cardiac dysfunctions. Potassium accumulates in plant cells, and thus fresh fruits and vegetables are a good dietary source. This resulted in potassium first being isolated from potash, the ashes of plants, giving the element its name. For the same reason, heavy crop production rapidly depletes soils of potassium, and agricultural fertilizers consume 95% of global potassium chemical production. A potassium intake sufficient to support life can in general be guaranteed by eating a variety of foods. Clear cases of potassium deficiencies are rare in healthy individuals. Foods rich in potassium include yam, parsley, dried apricots, dried milk, chocolate, various nuts (especially almonds and pistachios), potatoes, bamboo shoots, bananas, avocados, soybeans, and bran, although it is also present in sufficient quantities in most fruits, vegetables, meat and fish. Epidemiological studies subject to hypertension indicate that diets high in potassium can reduce the risk of hypertension and possibly stroke and a potassium deficiency combined with an inadequate thiamine intake has produced heart disease in rats. There is some debate regarding the optimal amount of dietary potassium. For example, the 2004 guidelines of the Institute of Medicine specify RDA of 4,700 mg of potassium (100 mEq), though most Americans consume only half that amount per day, which would make them formally deficient as regards this particular recommendation. Likewise in the EU, particularly in Germany and Italy, insufficient potassium intake is somewhat common. Italian researchers reported in a 2011 meta-analysis that a 1.64 g higher daily intake of potassium was associated with a 21% lower risk of stroke.
The potassium cation is a nutrient necessary for human life and health. Potassium chloride is used as a substitute for table salt by those seeking to reduce sodium intake so as to control hypertension. The USDA lists tomato paste, orange juice, beet greens, white beans, potatoes, bananas and many other dietary sources of potassium, ranked in descending order according to potassium content.

Sodium (Na) :   2.0mg/100g of whole ground buckwheat 
  In humans, sodium is an essential nutrient that regulates blood volume, blood pressure, osmotic equilibrium and pH; the minimum physiological requirement for sodium is 500 milligrams per day. Sodium chloride is the principal source of sodium in the diet, and is used as seasoning and preservative, such as for pickling and jerky; most of it comes from processed foods. RDA for sodium is 2.3 grams per day, but on average people in the United States consume 3.4 grams per day (8.6g table salt equivalent *), this, in turn, causes 7.6 million premature deaths worldwide.
* Table Salt Equivalent Volume (g) is calculated as Sodium volume (g) x 2.54. But as the sodium is contained in other foods too, this equivalent volume will be shown slightly higher than actually contained in the foods.
WHO and FAO recommend in equivalent volume under 5g/day in their "Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases" which is less than 2g of sodium.
Sodium is also important in neuron function and osmoregulation between cells and the extracellular fluid. Unusually low or high sodium levels in humans are recognized in medicine as hyponatremia and hypernatremia. These conditions may be caused by genetic factors, physical factors associated with ageing or illnesses involving vomiting or diarrhea.

Zinc (Zn) :   2.4mg/100g of whole ground buckwheat
  Zinc is an essential trace element for humans. Zinc is found in nearly 100 specific enzymes (other sources say 300), serves as structural ions in transcription factors and is stored and transferred in metallothioneins. It is the only metal which appears in all enzyme classes.
There are 2-4 grams of zinc distributed throughout the human body. Most zinc is in the brain, muscle, bones, kidney, and liver, with the highest concentrations in the prostate and parts of the eye. Semen is particularly rich in zinc, which is a key factor in prostate gland function and reproductive organ growth.

In humans, zinc plays "ubiquitous biological roles". It interacts with "a wide range of organic ligands" and has roles in the metabolism of RNA and DNA, signal transduction, and gene expression. It also regulates apoptosis. A 2006 study estimated that about 10% of human proteins potentially bind zinc, in addition to hundreds which transport and traffic zinc;

In the brain, zinc is stored in specific synaptic vesicles by glutamatergic neurons and can "modulate brain excitability". It plays a key role in synaptic plasticity and so in learning. However it has been called "the brain's dark horse" since it also can be a neurotoxin, suggesting zinc homeostasis plays a critical role in normal functioning of the brain and central nervous system.

RDA is 8 mg/day for women and 11 mg/day for men. Median intake in the U.S. around 2000 was 9 mg/day for women and 14 mg/day in men.
Food sources; Oysters is preeminently rich (7mg/100g), crab, lobster and iver 6mg/100g), red meats especially beef (4mg/100g) and lamb. Food plants that contain the most zinc are wheat (germ and bran 3.0mg/100g) buckwheat (as above 2.4mg/100g) and various seeds (sesame, poppy, alfalfa, celery, mustard). Zinc is also found in beans, nuts, almonds, whole grains, pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds and blackcurrant.

Symptoms of mild zinc deficiency are diverse. Clinical outcomes include depressed growth, diarrhea, impotence and delayed sexual maturation, alopecia, eye and skin lesions, impaired appetite, altered cognition, impaired host defense properties, defects in carbohydrate utilization, and reproductive teratogenesis. Mild zinc deficiency depresses immunity. Although zinc is an essential requirement for good health, excess zinc can be harmful. Excessive absorption of zinc suppresses copper and iron absorption. Zinc is a common ingredient of denture cream which may contain between 17 and 38 mg of zinc per gram. There have been claims of disability, and even death, due to excessive use of these products

Fibre :   4.3mg/100g of whole ground buckwheat 
 Human body cannot digest the fiber. So in the past fibre were not classified as the nutrition like protein. Advantages of consuming fiber are the production of healthful compounds during the fermentation of soluble fiber, and insoluble fiber's ability (via its passive hygroscopic properties) to increase bulk, soften stool, and shorten transit time through the intestinal tract. Fiber contribtute less energy than other nutritions. Especially insoluble fiber doesn't generate any energy 0 kcal and only soluble fiber generate modest energy depennding upon its condition of fermentation. In US soluble fiber must be counted as 4 kcal/g (17 kJ/g) on the label. Disadvantages of a diet high in fiber is the potential for significant intestinal gas production and bloating. Constipation can occur if insufficient fluid is consumed with a high-fiber diet.
Dietary fiber is a type of carbohydrate. There are two types. Soluble and Insoluble fiber. Soluble fibre is viscous and move slowly in the stomach and intestines. This makes us to feel less hungry which prevents over eating and also makes absorption of sugar slow preventing drastic increase of blood sugar level after the meal and also it adsorbs and excretes bile acid and choresterol. Furthermore in the process of dissolution it adjusts and improves intestinal environment increasing Lactobacillus bifidus etc by fermentation.
Insoluble fibre swells in the intestines absorbing water and stimulates bowel and move peristaltically and promote emptying bowels. Taking a lot of dietary fibre is to activate biosynthetis of B2 (Ribolavin).
Dietary fibers can act by changing the nature of the contents of the gastrointestinal tract and by changing how other nutrients and chemicals are absorbed.
Some types of soluble fiber absorb water to become a gelatinous, viscous substance which is fermented by bacteria in the digestive tract. Some types of insoluble fiber have bulking action and are not fermented. Lignin, a major dietary insoluble fiber source, may alter the rate and metabolism of soluble fibers. Other types of insoluble fiber, notably resistant starch, are fully fermented.

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